A Brief History about Mongolia's Early and Modern Days

Mongolia's history goes back to thousands of years. Recent archeological discoveries have found that Mongolia was inhabited 500,000 years ago. A large number of ethnic groups has been living and ruled by various nomadic empires throughout the history such as Xiongnu, Xianbei state, Routan and Turkic Khaganate and other empires ended with Great Mongol Empire.

Early Mongolia

The first of these, the Xiongnu were brought together to form a confederation by Modun Shanyu in 209 BC. This early state was called Hunnu. The Hunnu were a powerful empire and they were often at war with China. Because of Hunnu attacks China started to build a Great Wall.  

In 1206, Great Chinggis Khan founded the Mongol Empire. Late 12th century Temujin who is Chinggis Khan able to unite scattered Mongolian tribes and forging them into a fighting force which went on to create the largest contiguous empire in world history. He was a remarkable leader and Temujin made himself leader of all the Mongols. Later he took the name of Chinggis Khan which means supreme leader or great king. The Mongol Empire's territory extended from present day China, Russia and advanced into Europe, Korean and Arabian peninsula including Persia.

After centuries of domination, the Mongol Empire began to fall apart in 1398 AD, perhaps inevitable with the strategic error of moving the capital of the Mongol Empire from Kharkhorum to Beijing in neighboring China.

Manchu controlled Mongolia from the year 1692 to 1911, as a result of the Mongolian national movement for independence, the Mongol Monarchy was re-established in 1911.

Modern Mongolia

In 1911 revolution broke out in China which gave Mongolia the chance tp regain its independence. In 1915 the Treaty of Khyata between Mongolia, China and Russia allowed the country limited autonomy. However in 1919 the China ocuppied Mongolia again. The National Democratic Revolution won power in 1921 and Mongolia became completely independent. Then it became communist country.

In 1990 communism collapsed when demonstrations were held demanding democracy in Mongolia. The Communists caved in and elections were held. Mongolia gained a new constitution in 1992. Furthermore Mongolai changed to a market economy.